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典型家庭农场组织化程度对生产效率的影响分析
更新日期:2021-05-14     浏览次数:41
核心提示:摘要现阶段中国农业生产仍属于高投入、低效率的粗放模式,粮食安全缺乏可持续性。研究不同规模下不同组织形式的家庭农场生产效率,有助于揭示在中国农业

摘要 现阶段中国农业生产仍属于高投入、低效率的粗放模式,粮食安全缺乏可持续性。研究不同规模下不同组织形式的家庭农场生产效率,有助于揭示在中国农业高质量发展阶段中通过转变农业经营组织形式提高粮食生产效率,保障国家粮食安全的新路径。本文利用湖北武汉、安徽郎溪等地家庭农场的问卷调查数据,采用三阶段DEA方法比较纯种植与种养结合两类典型家庭农场的全要素生产率和水稻生产效率差异,并探讨农业生产效率的影响因素和水稻的适度经营规模。结果显示,家庭农场的全要素生产率和水稻生产效率都有较大的提升空间。不论是全要素生产率、水稻生产效率还是要素投入效率,种养结合农场总体高于纯种植农场。随着经营规模的扩大,种养结合农场中合理组织化对水稻生产效率的提升作用超过了纯种植农场中的专业化作用,其具有高单产、少物耗、轻污染、低成本、抗风险等优点,充分符合国家的"藏粮于技"战略,应受到积极鼓励和广泛推广。经营规模扩张对家庭农场生产效率的影响作用较为复杂,并不完全是线性的,应基于家庭和生产实际,合理确定家庭农场经营规模,走适度规模经营之路。 At present,agricultural production in China is still an extensive mode with high input and low efficiency,and the food security achieved lacks sustainability.The study on the productivity of family farms with different organizational forms at different scales is helpful to reveal a new way,which can improve the grain production efficiency and guarantee the national food security through transforming agricultural organizational forms.based on the questionnaire data of family farms,this paper uses the three-stage DEA model to compare the comprehensive production efficiency and rice production efficiency differences between the typical family farms of pure planting and combined planting and breeding,and discuss the influencing factors of agricultural productivity as well as the moderate scale of rice management.The results show that both two production efficiency of family farm have great room for improvement.The combined planting and breeding farm is generally higher than the pure planting farm on no matter the comprehensive production efficiency,rice production efficiency or factor input efficiency.With the expansion of operating scale,the reasonable organization in combined planting and breeding farm plays a more important role in improving rice production efficiency than the specialization in pure planting farm.The high yield,less material consumptions,light pollution,low cost and anti-risk ability of combined planting and breeding farm fully conforms to the national strategy of"storing grain in technology",which should be actively encouraged and vigorously promoted.The influence of operating scale expansion on the productivity of family farm is complex and not completely linear.Therefore,the operating scale of family farm should be reasonably determined based on the actual situation of family and production and the road of moderate scale operation should be taken.
作者 高思涵 吴海涛 GAO Sihan;WU Haitao
出处 《农业经济问题》 北大核心 2021年第3期88-99,共12页 Issues in Agricultural Economy
基金 教育部人文社科重点研究基地重大项目“农业现代化进程中新型农业经营体系与家庭农场研究”(编号:18JJD790012) 国家自然科学基金项目“城镇化路径选择对农村贫困影响的效应与机制”(编号:71573277)。
关键词 家庭农场 生产效率 经营规模 组织化程度 种养结合 Family farm Production efficiency Operating scale Organizational degree Combined planting and breeding